May 18, 1970 – Same-Sex Couple Applies for Marriage License

Richard John "Jack" Baker and James Michael McConnell applying for a marriage license in Minneapolis.Richard John “Jack” Baker and James Michael McConnell applying for a marriage license in Minneapolis.
Source:, Oct. 25, 2012

“On May 18, 1970, two University of Minnesota students, Richard John ‘Jack’ Baker and James Michael McConnell applied to Hennepin County District Court clerk Gerald Nelson for a marriage license. He denied the application, because the applicants both were men.

Baker and McConnell sued Nelson, claiming Minnesota law on marriage made no mention of gender. The trial court was not impressed with the argument, agreeing with Nelson. The state Supreme Court agreed with the lower court. When Baker-McConnell went to the U.S. Supreme Court, the couple was rebuffed again…

Baker v. Nelson has been used in other states as precedent to block efforts at marriage equality.”

MinnPost  “Minnesota’s Gay Community Purposely Moving Slowly on Gay Marriage Efforts,”, Nov. 24, 2008

[Editor’s Note: In 1971, the Minnesota Supreme Court ruled in one of the Baker-McConnell lawsuits that “the institution of marriage as a union of man and woman uniquely involving the procreating and rearing of children within the family is as old as the book of Genesis.”]

1973 – Maryland Bans Same-Sex Marriage

“Maryland becomes the first state to pass a statute banning marriage between same-sex couples when it includes in its Family Law Code a line reading, ‘Only a marriage between a man and a woman is valid in this State.'”

Freedom to Marry  “History and Timeline of the Freedom to Marry in the United States,”, Sep. 26, 2012

Nov. 21, 1976 – Non-Church Sanctioned Gay Wedding Makes News

“Back on Nov. 21, 1976, in Northwest Washington, [Wayne] Schwandt and [John] Fortunato walked down the aisle side by side, wearing matching embroidered tunics…

Reporters wrote about what Fortunato and Schwandt called a holy union, which was controversial not because there was talk of legalizing gay marriage but because the two men publicly ask for — and were denied — the blessing of the Episcopal Church.”

Washington Post  “Inventing a Marriage — and a Divorce, Gay Pair Who Wed in ’70s Recall Journey Uncharted by Law,”, Apr. 5, 2004

1983 – ‘Spousal’ Rights of Same-Sex Couples Becomes an Issue

“Karen Thompson’s eight year struggle for legal guardianship of her lover Sharon Kowalski, begins when a drunk driver collides with Sharon’s vehicle, placing her in a coma for several months and leaving her quadriplegic and severely brain-damaged. Despite Sharon’s wishes to be cared for by Karen, Sharon’s parents refused Karen full access or input into her care. Karen Thompson became a key spokesperson for lesbian and gay couples’ rights. Karen’s case was won in 1991.”

GLINN Media Corporation  “GLINN’s Timeline of Gay and Lesbian Family Issues,” (accessed Oct. 23, 2008)

Dec. 4, 1984 – Nation’s First Domestic Partnership Law Passed

“It took five years of lobbying by a stalwart city employee before the city of Berkeley [CA] enacted the nation’s first domestic partnership ordinance in 1984. At the outset only city employees could register, and the program offered only dental insurance coverage and leave benefits to city employees, but within a year Berkeley began including medical insurance benefits as well.”

Frederick Hertz, JD  Making It Legal: A Guide to Same-Sex Marriage, Domestic Partnerships & Civil Unions, 2011


Oct. 10, 1987 – First Mass Same-Sex Wedding Ceremony

Joy Wasson and Liz Throop during the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, where a mass same-sex wedding was held.Joy Wasson and Liz Throop during the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, where a mass same-sex wedding was held.
Source:, Apr. 14, 2013

“On October 10, 1987, nearly 7,000 people witnessed a wedding on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Men and women cheered and threw rice and confetti as family, friends, and community members took part in the largest mass wedding in American history…

But this was no ordinary wedding. And these were not typical brides and grooms. This wedding held special significance for its participants. Beyond the ‘mass’ nature of the celebration, something else was unique. The newlyweds that fall Saturday paired off as brides and brides, grooms and grooms. ‘The Wedding,’ as it came to be known, marked the symbolic beginning of nearly 2,000 same-sex marriages.”

Salon  “The Secret History of Gay Marriage,”, Sep. 8, 2013

July 1989 – Court Rulings Define Same-Sex Couples as Families

“The New York State Court of Appeals declares that a lesbian or gay couple living together for a least ten years can be considered a family for purposes of rent control protection, the first time a state’s highest court rules that a gay couple can be called a family…

The California Bar Association urges that lesbian and gay marriage be legally recognized and in Seattle, San Francisco and other cities, ‘partners’ regulations extending certain protections and rights to unmarried couples, straight and gay, are adopted.”

GLINN Media Corporation  “GLINN’s Timeline of Gay and Lesbian Family Issues,” (accessed Oct. 23, 2008)

1992 – Same-Sex Employees Begin to Receive Domestic Partner Benefits

“Domestic partners of employees of Levi Strauss & Co. are granted full medical benefits.”

“The province of Ontario, Canada, extends spousal benefits to same sex partners of government workers.”

“William Weld, governor of Massachusetts signs an executive order granting lesbian and gay state workers the same bereavement and family leave rights as heterosexual workers.”

GLINN Media Corporation  “GLINN’s Timeline of Gay and Lesbian Family Issues,” (accessed Oct. 23, 2008)

May 7, 1993 – Hawaii Supreme Court Rules on Same-Sex Marriages

“Hawaii Supreme Court rules the state cannot deny same-sex couples the right to marry unless it finds ‘a compelling reason’ to do so, and orders the issue back to the state legislature. Hawaii lawmakers pass amendment banning gay marriages.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Interactive Same-Sex Marriage Timeline,”, Feb. 2004

Mar. 1995 – Utah Governor Signs ‘Defense of Marriage’ Statute into Law

“Utah Gov. Mike Leavitt (R) signs into law the first state Defense of Marriage statute, which stipulates that Utah does not have to recognize out-of-state marriages that violate state public policy.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Timeline,”, Apr. 1, 2008

Sep. 21, 1996 – Clinton Signs Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

President Bill Clinton.President Bill Clinton.
Source: (accessed Sep. 16, 2013)

“President Clinton signs Defense of Marriage Act into law. It defines marriage as ‘a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife’ and defines a spouse as ‘a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife.’ That definition affects 1,049 laws determining eligibility for federal benefits, rights or privileges.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Interactive Same-Sex Marriage Timeline,”, Feb. 2004

May 1997 – Hawaii Becomes the First State to Offer Domestic Partnership Benefits to Same-Sex Couples

“Hawaii becomes the first state to mandate statewide domestic partnership benefits to same-sex couples. Called ‘Reciprocal Beneficiaries,’ these benefits cover less than 60 items (the law seems to be ambiguous on the exact number) and are offered only through certain businesses, some of which complained that the state has no business dictating employee policies. The Hawaii attorney general declared that she would not enforce the requirement for private employers to offer benefits.”

National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)  “Civil Unions & Domestic Partnership Statutes,”, Mar. 28, 2008

Feb. 27, 1998 – Alaska Superior Court Rules on Same-Sex Couples’ Right to Marry

“Alaska Superior Court judge rules that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry but stays the decision pending appeals to the state Supreme Court.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Timeline,”, Apr. 1, 2008

Nov. 3, 1998 – Hawaii Voters Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage

“Just as Hawaii’s high court seemed poised to allow same-sex marriages, gay activists have seen their visions of legal weddings on the beaches of Maui disappear as voters approved Constitutional Amendment 2, giving the legislature power to ‘reserve marriage to opposite-sex couples.'”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Hawaii Gives Legislature Power to Ban Same-Sex Marriage,”, Nov. 3, 1998

Nov. 3, 1998 – Alaska Voters Approve Constitutional Amendment Limiting Marriage

“Voters in Alaska overwhelmingly approved a same-sex marriage ballot initiative Tuesday. Alaska’s measure goes one step beyond Hawaii’s measure, by amending the constitution to limit marriage to ‘exist only between one man and one woman.'”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Hawaii Gives Legislature Power to Ban Same-Sex Marriage,”, Nov. 3, 1998

Dec. 20, 1999 – Vermont Supreme Court Rules on Same-Sex Couples Benefits and Protections

“We hold that the state is constitutionally required to extend to same-sex couples the common benefits and protections that flow from marriage under Vermont law…

Whether this ultimately takes the form of inclusion within the marriage laws themselves or a parallel ‘domestic partnership’ system or some equivalent statutory alternative, rests with the Legislature…

Whatever system is chosen, however, must conform with the constitutional imperative to afford all Vermonters the common benefit, protection, and security of the law…”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Vermont’s Top Court Backs Rights for Same-Sex Couples,”, Dec. 21, 1999


Mar. 30, 2000 – US Rabbis Approve Gay Partnership

Rabbi Charles Kroloff.Rabbi Charles Kroloff.
Source: (accessed Sep. 16, 2013)

“Rabbis belonging to the biggest and most liberal branch of Judaism in the United States have voted to recognise the partnerships of gay and lesbian couples.

The Central Conference of American Rabbis, which is part of the Jewish Reform movement, has agreed to sanction religious ceremonies for same-sex couples.

The President of the Conference, Rabbi Charles Kroloff, said that gay and lesbian people deserved the recognition and respect due to people created in the image of God.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “US Rabbis Approve Gay Partnership,”, Mar. 30, 2000


Apr. 26, 2000 – Vermont Civil Union Bill Becomes Law

“Vermont’s governor signed landmark legislation yesterday making the state the first in the country to grant the full benefits of marriage to same-sex couples.”

Democracy Now!  “Vermont Civil Union Bill Becomes Law,”, Apr. 27, 2000


Nov. 7, 2000 – Nebraska Voters Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage

“Nebraska voters approve a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Timeline,”, Apr. 1, 2008


Apr. 1, 2001 – Netherlands Becomes World’s First Country to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

Helene Faasen and Anne-Marie Thus take part in the world's first legal gay marriage ceremony.Helene Faasen and Anne-Marie Thus take part in the world’s first legal gay marriage ceremony.
Source: Associated Press, Apr. 23, 2013

“A Dutch law now allows same sex marriages, and today four couples became the world’s first homosexuals to legally wed…

Holland, long among the gay rights vanguard, enacted a bill last year converting the countries registered same-sex partnerships into full-fledged marriages.

Same-sex couples now have the same legal status as heterosexuals. They can divorce legally, claim pensions and other benefits, and adopt Dutch children. The couples are barred from adopting children overseas because of potential objections from countries that do not accept gay marriages.

Under the new legislation, all references to gender in laws governing matrimony and adoption will be deleted in favor of the neutral-gender term, partner.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Same-Sex Marriage Legalized in Amsterdam,”, Apr. 1, 2001

Nov. 7, 2002 – Nevada Voters Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage

“Nevada voters give final approval to a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. Voters first approved the ban in 2000, but state law requires a majority vote in two consecutive election years to amend the constitution.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Timeline,”, Apr. 1, 2008

Feb. 13, 2003 – Belgium Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Belgium became the second country to legalize equal marriage on February 13, 2003 [the law took effect June 1, 2003], when King Albert II approved the bill, which had previously been passed by the Senate and Chamber of Representatives. Without fanfare, 91 of the 122 deputies in the Belgian Parliament voted for the change, which stipulates that only couples from countries with the freedom to marry can be married under Belgian law. Initially, gay and lesbian couples were not allowed to adopt children under the original legislation, but Parliament passed co-parenting for same-sex couples in 2006.”

Freedom to Marry  “International Progress Toward the Freedom to Marry,” (accessed Sep. 16, 2013)


May 21, 2003 – Federal Constitutional Marriage Amendment Introduced

Rep. Marilyn Musgrave (R-CO 4th) introduces a proposed amendment to the Constitution of the United States (Bill #H.J. Res. 56), which declares: “Marriage in the United States shall consist only of the union of a man and a woman. Neither this Constitution or the constitution of any State, nor state or federal law, shall be construed to require that marital status or the legal incidents thereof be conferred upon unmarried couples or groups.”

May 2003, US Library of Congress  Federal Marriage Amendment – H.J. Res 56  (22.6KB)


June 10, 2003 – Ontario, Canada Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“The highest court in Canada’s largest province, Ontario, has ruled that gay and lesbian couples have the right to marry there. The ruling upholds a lower court decision and challenges the Canadian Government to change its laws on same-sex marriage. The appeals court ordered that gay couples seeking a legal union should be issued a marriage license immediately.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “Ontario Legalises Gay Marriage,”, June 11, 2003


June 26, 2003 – US Supreme Court Strikes Down Sodomy Laws

“U.S. Supreme Court [in a 6-3 decision] strikes down Texas sodomy state law banning private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. The court found that law and others like it violated the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. But legal analysts said the ruling enshrines for the first time a broad constitutional right to sexual privacy.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Supreme Court Strikes Down Texas Sodomy Law,”, Nov. 18, 2003


July 8, 2003 – British Columbia Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Two men exchanged their vows at the Vancouver Law Courts Tuesday, less than an hour after the B.C. Court of Appeal officially changed the legal definition of marriage.”

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)  “Same-Sex Marriage in Canada,” (accessed Oct. 27, 2008)


July 31, 2003 – Vatican Begins Campaign Against Same-Sex Marriage

“The Vatican has launched a global campaign against gay marriages, warning Catholic politicians that support of same-sex unions is ‘gravely immoral.’ The Vatican issued a 12-page set of guidelines with the approval of Pope John Paul II in a bid to stem the increase in laws granting legal rights to homosexual unions in Europe and North America.

‘Marriage exists solely between a man and woman… Marriage is holy, while homosexual acts go against the natural moral law,’ the 12-page document by the Vatican’s Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith said Thursday [July 31, 2003].”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Vatican Fights Gay Marriages,”, July 31, 2003

Aug. 1, 2003 – Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Unions Gathers Sponsors

“Before the ruling [Supreme Court ruling that laws making gay sex a crime were unconstitutional], supporters in the House [US House of Representatives] of a constitutional amendment that would more formally restrict marriage to the union of a man and a woman were having trouble attracting sponsors. After the ruling, the number of co-sponsors has nearly quadrupled to 75.”

Los Angeles Times  Elizabeth Shogren, “Foes of Gay Marriage Find New Momentum,”, Aug. 1, 2003


Aug. 18, 2003 – Poll Shows Majority of Americans Opposed to Same-Sex Marriage

“More than half of Americans favor a law barring gay marriage and specifying wedlock be between a man and a woman, an Associated Press poll found. The survey also found presidential candidates could face a backlash if they support gay marriage or civil unions…”

Associated Press (AP)  “Many Favor Law Barring Gay Marriage,”, Aug. 18, 2003


Sep. 19, 2003 – California Passes Domestic Partnership Law

“On Friday, September 19, 2003, Governor Davis signed AB 205, The Domestic Partner Rights and Responsibilities Act of 2003, at the LGBT [Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender] Center in San Francisco. This historic legislation, authored by Assemblymember Jackie Goldberg (D-Los Angeles) and sponsored by EQCA [Equality California], provides domestic partners with almost all of the same rights and responsibilities as spouses in a civil marriage.”

Williams Institute  “Issues: Economics of Same-Sex Marriage – California,” (accessed Oct. 27, 2008)


Oct. 28, 2003 – US President Bush Announces He Wants Marriage Reserved for Heterosexuals

President George W. Bush.President George W. Bush.
Source: (accessed Sep. 16, 2013)

“Bush said it is ‘important for society to welcome each individual…

I believe marriage is between a man and a woman, and I think we ought to codify that one way or another,’ Bush told reporters at a White House news conference. ‘And we’ve got lawyers looking at the best way to do that…'”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Bush Wants Marriage Reserved for Heterosexuals,”, Oct. 28, 2003


Nov. 18, 2003 – State Supreme Court Decision Makes Massachusetts First US State to Legalize Gay Marriage

The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts in a 4-3 ruling held that “barring an individual from the protections, benefits, and obligations of civil marriage solely because that person would marry a person of the same sex violates the Massachusetts Constitution…

‘Marriage is a vital social institution,’ wrote Chief Justice Margaret H. Marshall for the majority Justices. ‘The exclusive commitment of two individuals to each other nurtures love and mutual support; it brings stability to our society…'”

Hillary Goodridge & others vs. Department of Public Health & another,  SJC-08860  (105KB), Nov. 18, 2003


Feb. 12, 2004 – City of San Francisco Begins Marrying Same-Sex Couples

“In an open challenge to California law, city authorities performed at least 15 same-sex weddings Thursday [Feb. 12, 2004] and issued about a dozen more marriage licenses to gay and lesbian couples.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “San Francisco Weds Gay Couples,”, Feb. 12, 2004

Feb. 20, 2004 – New Mexico County Begins Issuing Marriage Licenses to Same-Sex Couples

“A county clerk issued marriage licenses Friday to at least 15 gay couples, some of whom then exchanged vows outside the courthouse, as more same-sex couples lined up for a chance to tie the knot…

…New Mexico law defines marriage as a contract between contracting parties but does not mention gender.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Gay Couples Marry in New Mexico,”, Feb. 20, 2004


Feb. 20, 2004 – Cambodian King Backs Gay Marriage

“The king said that as a ‘liberal democracy’, Cambodia should allow ‘marriage between man and man… or between woman and woman.’ He said he had respect for homosexual and lesbians and said they were as they were because God loved a ‘wide range of tastes.'”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “Cambodian King Backs Gay Marriage,”, Feb. 20. 2004

Feb. 24, 2004 – President Bush Announces Support for Constitutional Amendment Banning Same-Sex Marriage

“President Bush backed a constitutional amendment banning gay marriage Tuesday [Feb. 24, 2004], saying he wants to stop activist judges from changing the definition of the ‘most enduring human institution.’ Marriage cannot be severed from its cultural and moral roots, Bush said, urging Congress to approve such an amendment.

‘After more than two centuries of American jurisprudence and millennia of human experience, a few judges and local authorities are presuming to change the most fundamental institution of civilization,’ the president said. ‘Their action has created confusion on an issue that requires clarity.'”

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)  “The Bush Presidency,”, Feb. 24, 2004

Feb. 27, 2004 – New York Town of New Paltz Begins Marrying Same-Sex Couples

Maj. Jeffrey McGowan and Billiam van Roestenberg taking marriage vows  in New Paltz, NY on Feb. 27, 2004.Maj. Jeffrey McGowan and Billiam van Roestenberg taking marriage vows in New Paltz, NY on Feb. 27, 2004.
Source: Associated Press, Feb. 28, 2004

“The same-sex marriage controversy moved to a tiny Hudson River village, where the mayor of New Paltz, New York, began performing same-sex marriages Friday [Feb. 27, 2004]. Mayor Jason West said he considers it his ‘moral obligation’ to issue marriage licenses to gay couples.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  Jonathan Wald, “New York Town’s Mayor Marries Same-Sex Couples,”, Feb. 28, 2004


Mar. 3, 2004 – Gays Wed in Portland, Oregon

“County officials began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples in Portland [Oregon] Wednesday [Mar. 3, 2004], joining the rapidly spreading national movement that has moved from San Francisco to upstate New York.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Gay Marriage Licenses Issued in Oregon,”, Mar. 3, 2004


Mar. 8, 2004 – California State Assemblywoman Marries

“This city [San Francisco] once again saw the melding of the personal and political Monday [Mar. 8, 2004] when state Sen. Sheila Kuehl (D-Santa Monica) presided over the marriages of six couples who have long been active in the gay and lesbian community, including Assemblywoman Jackie Goldberg. In back-to-back ceremonies on the steps of the City Hall rotunda, Kuehl, California’s first openly gay state legislator, pronounced her close friends and political colleagues married to tears and shouts of jubilation.”

Los Angeles Times  Lee Romney, “Goldberg and Partner Marry in San Francisco,”, Mar. 9, 2004

Mar. 10, 2004 – Washington Post/ABC Poll Shows Support for Same-Sex Marriage Grows

“About half the country — 51 percent — favors allowing gay couples to form civil unions with the same basic legal rights as married couples, up 6 percentage points in less than a month. A slightly larger majority also rejected amending the U.S. Constitution to ban same-sex marriages in favor of allowing states to make their own laws, an increase of 8 percentage points in recent weeks.”

Washington Post  “Poll Finds Growing Support for Gay Civil Unions,”, Mar. 10, 2004


Mar. 11, 2004 – California Supreme Court Orders Halt to San Francisco Same-Sex Weddings

“The California Supreme Court today [Mar. 11, 2004] ordered San Francisco officials to stop issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples until the court can hold a hearing on gay marriages. The hearing would be held later this spring … A Superior Court hearing has been scheduled for Mar. 29. If the state Supreme Court does not intervene, a final resolution to the legal challenges could take at least a year. If the case is permitted to go to trial, San Francisco officials said in their brief, the city will present evidence that ‘relegating same-sex relationships to inferior, second-class status severely stigmatizes gay men, lesbians and their families.'”

Los Angeles Times  “Court Orders San Francisco Officials to Halt Gay Marriages,”, Mar. 11, 2004


Mar. 15, 2004 – Spousal Benefits for Gays at the United Nations Challenged

“A bloc of more than 50 Islamic states, backed by the Vatican, sought today to halt U.N. efforts to extend spousal benefits to partners of some gay employees. The initiative came less than two months after U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan moved to award benefits to partners of gay employees who come from countries where such benefits are provided, such as Belgium and the Netherlands…

The United Nations has recognized polygamy, a common practice in the Islamic world, as a legitimate form of marriage and permits employees to divide their benefits among more than one wife. But the decision to expand that right to same-sex partners has fueled intense opposition…

The European Union, Canada, Australia and New Zealand defended Annan’s decision on benefits for U.N. staffers. ‘The European Union is satisfied with this practice and we see no reason why the secretary general’s prerogative in this area should now be contested,’ said Ireland’s envoy, Margaret Stanley, speaking on behalf of the EU.

But conservative critics said the secretary general’s decision represents an unwelcome assault on conservative values, and they vowed to take the fight to the U.N. Human Rights Commission in Geneva in the coming weeks. ‘I have no doubt there will be very strong opposition from Islamic countries, from some Latin Americans and the Vatican,’ said Austin Ruse, president of the Catholic Family and Human Rights Institute, which has worked closely with the Vatican at the United Nations.”

Washington Post  “UN Spousal Benefits for Gays in Dispute,”, Mar. 16, 2004


Mar. 16, 2004 – New York Times/CBS Poll Shows 59% Support Constitutional Amendment Restricting Marriage to ‘a Man and a Woman’

“By 59 percent to 35 percent, respondents said they supported a constitutional amendment that would ‘allow marriage only between a man and a woman.’ But 56 percent said that they did not view the issue as important enough to merit changing the nation’s constitution.”

New York Times  “The 2004 Campaign: The Poll; Nation’s Direction Prompts Voters’ Concern, Poll Finds,”, Mar. 16, 2004


Mar. 19, 2004 – Quebec Ruling Paves Way for Gay Marriages

“Homosexuals have the right to wed, Quebec’s top court said Friday [Mar. 19, 2004], making it the third Canadian province to allow same-sex marriage. The Quebec Court of Appeal upheld a lower-court ruling that the traditional definition of marriage is discriminatory and unjustified.”

Boston Globe  “Quebec Court Paves Way for Gay Marriages,”, Mar. 19, 2004


Mar. 23, 2004 – Oregon County Bans All Marriage

“In a new twist in the battle over same-sex marriage roiling the United States, a county in Oregon has banned all marriages — gay and heterosexual — until the state decides who can and who cannot wed.

The last marriage licenses were handed out in Benton County at 4 p.m. local time Tuesday [Mar. 23, 2004]. As of Wednesday, officials in the county of 79,000 people will begin telling couples applying for licenses to go elsewhere until the gay marriage debate is settled. ‘It may seem odd,’ Benton County Commissioner Linda Modrell told Reuters in a telephone interview, but ‘we need to treat everyone in our county equally.’

State Attorney General Hardy Myers said in a statement that he was ‘very pleased’ with Benton County’s decision. ‘It is my sincere hope that the legal process will provide clarity for each of Oregon’s counties.'”

Reuters  “Gay-Marriage Debate in Missouri Sparks ‘Inflammatory’ Comments,”, Mar. 24, 2004

Mar. 30, 2004 – Conservatives Testify Against Constitutional Amendment Banning Same-Sex Marriage

“Several high-profile conservative Americans testified at a Congressional hearing today [Mar. 30, 2004] in opposition to changing the U.S. Constitution. At today’s House Judiciary subcommittee hearing around a constitutional amendment to ban marriage for same-sex couples, former Congressman Bob Barr and Wyoming State Sen. John Hanes — both Republicans — rejected tampering with the Constitution…”

‘If we begin to treat the Constitution as our personal sandbox, in which to build and destroy castles as we please, we risk diluting the grandeur of having a Constitution in the first place,’ said former Rep. Bob Barr, R-Ga., who penned the Defense of Marriage Act.

Sen. Hanes added: ‘Our goal as conservatives should be to avoid creating needless division, and instead let the people build their communities without federal interference.'”

Human Rights Campaign, Mar. 30, 2004

Mar. 31, 2004 – UK Grants ‘Joint Rights’ to Same-Sex Couples

“Gay and lesbian couples are to be given the chance to get similar legal rights to married couples under a new Civil Partnership Bill. The measures, unveiled on Wednesday, allows legal recognition for gay couples for the first time. The Bill gives the legal rights to same-sex couples who register their partnership at a civil ceremony.

Gay couples would not have to live together for a certain length of time to be eligible for the rights and if the partnership breaks up, there would be a formal court process for dissolving it.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “Gay Couples to Get Joint Rights,”, Mar. 31, 2004


Apr. 20, 2004 – Oregon Same-Sex Marriages Ordered Halted

“A judge on Tuesday ordered Multnomah County to stop issuing marriage licenses to gay couples. The action effectively ends gay marriage nationally, because the county was the only jurisdiction in the country known to currently allow same-sex weddings.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Oregon Same-Sex Marriages Ordered Halted,”, Apr. 20, 2004

May 17, 2004 – First Legal Gay Marriage in the United States

Marcia Kadish and Tanya McCloskey, the first legally married same-sex couple in the United States.Marcia Kadish and Tanya McCloskey, the first legally married same-sex couple in the United States.
Source: (accessed Sep. 17, 2013)

“CAMBRIDGE, Mass., May 17 — America’s first gay marriage fully authorized by law took place here this morning when Tanya McCloskey, 52, and Marcia Kadish, 56, exchanged vows at the Cambridge City Hall.”

Washington Post  “Gay Couples Wed in Mass.,”, May 17, 2004

June 10, 2004 – New York Court Backs Gay Marriage

“A New York court has ruled in favour of gay marriages saying that failure to do so would breach the equal rights laws written into the state’s constitution.

In its ruling the court in the town of New Paltz also dismissed the charges against local mayor Jason West who wed dozens of gay couples in February. It had been claimed that Mr West broke the law when he allowed the marriages.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “New York Court Backs Gay Marriage,”, June 10, 2004

July 14, 2004 – Same-Sex Marriage Ban Fails in US Senate

“Efforts to pass a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage foundered Wednesday afternoon in the Senate when the proposal failed to garner enough votes to stay alive.

After final arguments by the leaders of each party, the Republicans mustered 48 votes, 12 short of the 60 they needed to overcome a procedural hurdle and move the proposed amendment to the floor.

‘In 217 years, we’ve only amended that sacred document 17 times,’ said Sen. Tom Daschle, D-South Dakota before the vote. ‘There have been 11,000 separate attempts.’

There is no urgent need to amend the Constitution now, he said.

But Sen. Bill Frist disagreed. ‘It has become clear to legal scholars … that same-sex marriage will be exported to all 50 states,’ said the majority leader, from Tennessee.

‘Will activist judges not elected by the American people destroy the institution of marriage, or will the people protect marriage as the best way to raise children? My vote is with the people.'”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Same-sex Marriage Senate Battle Over, War Is Not,”, July 15, 2004

Aug. 3, 2004 – Missouri Votes to Ban Same-Sex Marriage

“Missouri voters solidly endorsed a state constitutional amendment banning gay marriage…”

Associated Press (AP)  “Missouri Voters Approve Gay Marriage Ban; Vote Seen as Bellwether for Other States,”, Aug. 4, 2004

Aug. 4, 2004 – Seattle Judge Approves Same-Sex Marriages

“Gay couples can be married under Washington state law, because denying their right to do so is a violation of their constitutional rights, a judge ruled Wednesday [Aug. 4, 2004].

‘The denial to the plaintiffs of the right to marry constitutes a denial of substantive due process,’ King County Superior Court Judge William L. Downing said in his ruling.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Washington Judge OKs Same-Sex Marriage,”, Aug. 4, 2004

Aug. 12, 2004 – California Supreme Court Voids Same-Sex Marriages

“Thousands of marriages sanctioned in San Francisco earlier this year were voided Thursday when the California Supreme Court ruled that city’s mayor overstepped his authority by issuing licenses to gay and lesbian couples.
San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom said the city would appeal the 5-2 ruling by the state’s high court…

In its ruling Thursday, the court said San Francisco illegally issued the certificates and performed the wedding ceremonies, since state law defined marriage as a union between a man and woman. The justices nullified the nearly 4,000 marriages performed between February 12 and Mar. 11, when the court halted the weddings.

The court did not resolve whether the California Constitution would permit a same-sex marriage, ruling instead on the limits of authority regarding local government officials.

The high court’s ruling ordered city and county officials to ‘take all necessary remedial steps to undo the continuing effects of the officials’ past unauthorized actions, including making appropriate corrections to all relevant official records and notifying all affected same-sex couples that the same-sex marriages authorized by the officials are void and of no legal effect.'”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “California High Court Voids Same-Sex Marriage,”, Aug. 13, 2004

Aug. 24, 2004 – Vice President Dick Cheney Sees Same-Sex Marriage as a State Issue

Dick Cheney with his openly gay daughter Mary Cheney.Dick Cheney with his openly gay daughter Mary Cheney.
Source:, June 22, 2012

“Vice President Cheney spelled out his differences with President Bush on the volatile issue of gay marriage Tuesday [Aug. 24, 2004] while making his most revealing public comments so far about the sexual orientation of his gay daughter.

Asked his position on the subject at a town hall meeting here, Cheney replied: ‘Lynne and I have a gay daughter, so it’s an issue that our family is very familiar with. . . . With respect to the question of relationships, my general view is that freedom means freedom for everyone. People . . . ought to be free to enter into any kind of relationship they want to.’

Cheney went on to reiterate the position he first outlined in the 2000 campaign — that same-sex marriage should be left to the states to decide. He noted, however, that Bush has endorsed a constitutional amendment preventing the states from recognizing such marriages.

‘At this point . . . my own preference is as I’ve stated,’ Cheney said. ‘But the president makes basic policy for the administration. And he’s made it.'”

Washington Post  “Cheney Sees Gay Marriage as State Issue,”, Aug. 25, 2004


Sep. 18, 2004 – Same-Sex Marriage Ban Approved in Louisiana

“Louisiana voters overwhelmingly approved a state constitutional amendment Saturday [Sep. 18, 2004] banning same-sex marriages and civil unions, one of up to 12 such measures on the ballot around the country this year.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Louisiana Voters Approve Same-Sex Marriage Amendment,”, Sep. 20, 2004

Sep. 30, 2004 – US House of Representatives Rejects Same-Sex Marriage Ban

“The House joined the Senate yesterday in refusing to approve a constitutional amendment to bar same-sex marriage, described by Republican supporters as a vital protection for traditional families but denounced by Democratic foes as a divisive pre-election ploy to inflame prejudice.

The vote by the GOP-controlled House was 227 to 186 in favor of writing the same-sex marriage ban into the Constitution, 49 short of the two-thirds majority needed to approve an amendment and send it to the states for ratification.

The Senate, also controlled by Republicans, voted 50 to 48 in July against taking up the amendment.”

Washington Post  “House Rejects Same-Sex Marriage Ban,”, Oct. 1, 2004

Nov. 2, 2004 – 11 US States Pass Initiatives to Ban Same-Sex Marriage

“Measures banning same-sex marriage passed by wide margins in all 11 states that had them on Tuesday’s [Nov. 2, 2004] ballot, in what conservative groups described yesterday [Nov. 3, 2004] as a sweeping popular rejection of a Massachusetts court’s decision to allow gay marriage in that state.”

Washington Post  “Same-Sex Bans Fuel Conservative Agenda,”, Nov. 4, 2004

(Note: Click here to see a recap of those 11 measures.)

Nov. 29, 2004 – US Supreme Court Declines to Review Massachusetts’ Same-Sex Marriage Law

“The Supreme Court on Monday [Nov. 29, 2004] sidestepped a dispute over same-sex marriages, rejecting a challenge to the nation’s only law sanctioning such unions.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Supreme Court Declines Massachusetts Same-Sex Marriage Fight Conservatives Had Challenged State Law Allowing Unions,”, Nov. 29, 2004



Feb. 4, 2005 – State Judge Rules That New York Ban on Same-Sex Marriage Is Illegal

“A New York State judge in Manhattan ruled yesterday (Feb. 4, 2005) that a state law that effectively denied gay couples the right to marry violated the state Constitution, a decision that raised the possibility that the city would begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples as soon as next month.

The ruling, by Justice Doris Ling-Cohan, was the first on the state level to side with proponents of gay marriage. In her 62-page decision, she wrote that the state’s Domestic Relations Law, which dates to 1909 and limits marriage to unions between opposite-sex couples, deprived gay couples of equal protection and due process rights under the state Constitution.

She likened the law to those that once barred interracial marriages and said that words currently used in defining legal marriages – husband and wife, groom and bride – ‘shall be construed to apply equally to either men or women.'”

New York Times  “Judge’s Ruling Opens Window for Gay Marriage in New York City,”, Feb. 5, 2005


Feb. 23, 2005 – Pope Calls Same-Sex Marriage ‘Evil’

Pope John Paul II.Pope John Paul II.
Source: (accessed Sep. 16, 2013)

“Homosexual marriages are part of ‘a new ideology of evil’ that is insidiously threatening society, Pope John Paul says in his newly published book…. In one section about the role of lawmakers, the Pope takes another swipe at gay marriages when he refers to ‘pressures’ on the European Parliament to allow them.

‘It is legitimate and necessary to ask oneself if this is not perhaps part of a new ideology of evil, perhaps more insidious and hidden, which attempts to pit human rights against the family and against man,’ he writes.”

Reuters  “Pope Calls Gay Marriage Part of ‘Ideology of Evil,'”, Feb. 23, 2005


Mar. 14, 2005 – Judge Rules California Same-Sex Marriage Ban Is Unconstitutional

“A judge ruled today [Mar. 14, 2005] that California can no longer justify limiting marriage to a man and a woman, a legal milestone that if upheld on appeal would pave the way for the nation’s most populous state to follow Massachusetts in allowing same-sex couples to wed…

‘The state’s protracted denial of equal protection cannot be justified simply because such constitutional violation has become traditional,’ Kramer wrote.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Judge Says Calif. Can’t Ban Gay Marriage,”, Mar. 14, 2005


Apr. 4, 2005 – Kansas Voters Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage

“Voters in Kansas overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment banning same-sex couples from marrying or entering into civil unions. With more than half of the precincts reporting, 298,647 votes, or 70 percent, were cast in favor of a amendment, with 128,366, or 30 percent, opposed.”

New York Times  “Kansas: Voters Approve Amendment Banning Same-Sex Marriage,”, Apr. 5, 2005

Apr. 14, 2005 – Oregon Court Voids Same-Sex Marriage Licenses

“The Oregon Supreme Court on Thursday (Apr. 14, 2005) nullified nearly 3,000 marriage licenses issued to same-sex couples by Multnomah County a year ago, saying a single county couldn’t take such action on its own. The court said while the county can question the constitutionality of laws governing marriage, they are a matter of statewide concern so the county had no authority to issue licenses to gay couples.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Oregon Court Voids Same-Sex Marriage Licenses,”, Apr. 14, 2005

Apr. 20, 2005 – Connecticut Approves Same-Sex Civil Unions

“Connecticut on Wednesday [Apr. 20, 2005] became the second state to offer civil unions to gay couples — and the first to do so without being forced by the courts…

The Senate approved the amended bill Wednesday 26-8. The law takes effect October 1.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Connecticut OKs Civil Unions for Gay Couples,”, Apr. 20, 2005

Apr. 25, 2005 – Navajo Nation Bans Same-Sex Marriage

“The Navajo Nation has forbidden same-sex marriages on its Arizona reservation. The Tribal Council voted unanimously in favor of legislation that recognizes only the union of one man and one woman, and prohibits marriages between close relatives.

‘Men and women have been created in a sacred manner,’ delegate Harriet K. Becenti said.”

Los Angeles Times  “Navajo Council Bars Same-Sex Marriage,”, Apr. 25, 2005

June 30, 2005 – Spain Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, Deputy Prime Minister Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega, and members of Spain's Parliament applaud the passage of the same-sex marriage bill.Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, Deputy Prime Minister Maria Teresa Fernandez de la Vega, and members of Spain’s Parliament applaud the passage of the same-sex marriage bill.
Source: Associated Press, June 30, 2005

“The Spanish Parliament gave final approval today [June 30, 2005] to a bill legalizing same-sex marriage, making Spain only the second nation to eliminate all legal distinctions between same-sex and heterosexual unions, according to supporters of the bill.

The measure, passed by a vote of 187 to 147, establishes that couples will have the same rights, including the freedom to marry and to adopt children, regardless of gender.”

New York Times  “Spain Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage,”, June 30, 2005

July 4, 2005 – United Church of Christ Backs Same-Sex Marriage

“The United Church of Christ became the first mainline Christian denomination to support same-sex marriage officially when its general synod passed a resolution on Monday [July 4, 2005] affirming ‘equal marriage rights for couples regardless of gender.'”

New York Times  “United Church of Christ Backs Same-Sex Marriage,”, July 5, 2005

July 20, 2005 – Canada Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Canada signed gay marriage legislation into law Wednesday [July 20, 2005], becoming the fourth nation to grant full legal rights to same-sex couples.”

San Francisco Chronicle  “Canada OKs Gay Marriage,”, July 25, 2005


Aug. 22, 2005 – California Supreme Court Establishes Co-Parenting Rights for Same-Sex Couples

“California Supreme Court issues first-of-its-kind ruling recognizing the co-parenting rights of same-sex couples.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Timeline,”, Apr. 1, 2008


Sep. 6, 2005 – California Legislature First in United States to Approve Gay Marriage Legalization

“The California Legislature on Tuesday became the first legislative body in the country to approve same-sex marriages, as gay-rights advocates overcame two earlier defeats in the Assembly.

The 41-35 vote sends the bill to Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, whose office had no comment on the bill when it cleared the Senate last week…”

Associated Press (AP)  “California Legislature Approves Same-Sex Marriage Bill,”, Sep. 7, 2005

Sep. 29, 2005 – California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Vetoes Bill to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Source: Associated Press, Aug. 23, 2010

“Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger today delivered on his promise to veto legislation that would have given same-sex partners the right to marry, but said he would not support any rollback of the state’s current domestic partner benefits.”

San Francisco Chronicle  “Schwarzenegger Vetoes Gay Marriage Bill as Promised,”, Sep. 29, 2005

Nov. 9, 2005 – Texas Voters Approve Constitutional Amendment Banning Same-Sex Marriage

“Texas voters Tuesday overwhelming approved a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage, making their state the 19th to take that step.”

FOX News  “Texas OKs Gay-Marriage Ban,”, Nov. 19, 2005


June 6, 2006 – Alabama Voters Approve Constitutional Amendment Banning Gay Marriage

“Alabama voters showed that there are limits to how far they are willing to go to mix faith and politics in the Buckle of the Bible Belt. They overwhelmingly endorsed a ban on gay marriage Tuesday, giving it 81 percent approval.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Alabama Voters Showed That There are Limits to How Far They Are Willing to Go to Mix Faith and Politics,”, June 6, 2006

July 18, 2006 – House Rejects Constitutional Amendment to Ban Gay Marriage

“The House on Tuesday rejected a constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage, ending for another year a congressional debate that supporters of the ban hope will still reverberate in this fall’s election.

The 236-187 vote for the proposal to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman was 47 short of the two-thirds majority needed to advance a constitutional amendment.”

Associated Press (AP)  “House Rejects Gay Marriage Ban Amendment,”, July 18, 2006

Oct. 25, 2006 – New Jersey Supreme Court Orders Legislature to Recognize Same-Sex Unions

“In a decision likely to stoke the contentious election-year debate over same-sex marriage, the New Jersey Supreme Court has ruled that state lawmakers must provide the rights and benefits of marriage to gay and lesbian couples.

The high court on Wednesday [Oct. 25, 2006] gave legislators six months to either change state marriage laws to include same-sex couples, or come up with another mechanism, such as civil unions, that would provide the same protections and benefits.

The court’s vote was 4-to-3. But the ruling was more strongly in favor of same-sex marriage than that split would indicate. The three dissenting justices argued the court should have extended full marriage rights to homosexuals, without kicking the issue back to legislators.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “New Jersey Court Recognizes Right to Same-Sex Unions,”, Oct. 26, 2006


Nov. 7, 2006 – Voters in Seven States Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage

“Voters in seven states – Idaho, Colorado, South Dakota, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and Wisconsin – approve constitutional amendments banning same-sex marriage.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Timeline,”, Apr. 1, 2008


Nov. 30, 2006 – South Africa Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“The South African parliament legalized same-sex marriage in November 2006, one year after the country’s highest court ruled that the previous marriage laws violated the South African constitution’s guarantee of equal rights. The new law allows for religious institutions and civil officers to refuse to conduct same-sex marriage ceremonies, a provision that critics claim violates the rights of same-sex couples under the constitution.

The new measure passed by a margin of greater than five-to-one, with support coming from both the governing African National Congress as well as the main opposition party, the Democratic Alliance. However, the traditional monarch of the Zulu people, who account for about one-fifth of the country’s population, maintains that homosexuality is morally wrong.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Around the World,”, July 16, 2013


May 15, 2008 – California Supreme Court Overturns Ban on Gay Marriage

“The California Supreme Court, striking down two state laws that had limited marriages to unions between a man and a woman, ruled Thursday [May 15, 2008] that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry.

The court’s 4-to-3 decision, drawing on a ruling six decades ago that struck down the state’s ban on interracial marriage, would make California only the second state, after Massachusetts, to allow same-sex marriages…

Given the historic, cultural, symbolic and constitutional significance of marriage, Chief Justice Ronald M. George wrote for the majority, the state cannot limit its availability to opposite-sex couples.
‘In view of the substance and significance of the fundamental constitutional right to form a family relationship,’ he wrote, ‘the California Constitution properly must be interpreted to guarantee this basic civil right to all Californians, whether gay or heterosexual, and to same-sex couples as well as to opposite-sex couples.'”

New York Times  “California Supreme Court Overturns Gay Marriage Ban,”, May 15, 2008


Aug. 22, 2008 – Coquille Indian Tribe Becomes First Native American Tribe to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

“At the request of a lesbian couple, the Coquille Indian Tribe on the southern Oregon coast has adopted a law recognizing same-sex marriage.

Tribal law specialists say the Coquille appear to be the first tribe to sanction such marriages. Most tribal law doesn’t address the issue. The Navajo and Cherokee tribes prohibit same-sex marriages…

Oregon voters amended the state constitution in 2004 to prohibit gay marriage. But with its sovereignty recognized by the federal government, the [Coquille Indian] tribe is not bound by the state constitution.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Oregon Tribe to Allow Same-Sex Marriages,”, Aug. 22, 2008


Oct. 10, 2008 – Connecticut Supreme Court Rules Same-Sex Couples Can Marry

“A sharply divided Connecticut Supreme Court struck down the state’s civil union law on Friday and ruled that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry. Connecticut thus joins Massachusetts and California as the only states to have legalized gay marriages.

The ruling, which cannot be appealed and is to take effect on Oct. 28, held that a state law limiting marriage to heterosexual couples, and a civil union law intended to provide all the rights and privileges of marriage to same-sex couples, violated the constitutional guarantees of equal protection under the law.

The [4-3] ruling was groundbreaking in various respects. In addition to establishing Connecticut as the third state to sanction same-sex marriage, it was the first state high court ruling to hold that civil union statutes specifically violated the equal protection clause of a state constitution.”

New York Times  “Gay Marriage Is Ruled Legal in Connecticut,”, Oct. 10, 2008


Nov. 4, 2008 – California Voters Approve a Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage

An opponent and supporter of California's Proposition 8.An opponent and supporter of California’s Proposition 8.
Source:, Nov. 5, 2008

“A measure to once again ban gay marriagein California was passed by voters in Tuesday’s [Nov. 4, 2008] election, throwing into doubt the unions of an estimated 18,000 same-sex couples who wed during the last 4 1/2 months…

Proposition 8 was the most expensive proposition on any ballot in the nation this year, with more than $74 million spent by both sides.

The measure’s most fervent proponents believed that nothing less than the future of traditional families was at stake, while opponents believed that they were fighting for the fundamental right of gay people to be treated equally under the law…

Eight years ago, Californians voted 61% to define marriage as being only between a man and a woman.

The California Supreme Court overturned that measure, Proposition 22, in its May 15 decision legalizing same-sex marriage on the grounds that the state Constitution required equal treatment of gay and lesbian couples…”

Los Angeles Times  “California Voters Approve Proposition 8 Ban on Same-Sex Marriages,”, Nov. 5, 2008


Nov. 4, 2008 – Florida Voters Approve a Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriages

“A ban on gay marriage, which is already illegal in Florida, looks like it will be enshrined in the state Constitution…

The marriage protection amendment defines marriage as a bond between straight couples and renders invalid any other union that is ‘treated as marriage or the substantial equivalent.”

Miami Herald  “California Voters Approve Gay-Marriage Bans,”, Nov. 5, 2008

Nov. 4, 2008 – Arizona Voters Approve a Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriages

“The second time around proved the charm, as Arizona voters approved a constitutional amendment that bans same-sex marriage.

Proposition 102 proposed a 20-word amendment to the state Constitution to define marriage as between one man and one woman. It’s an attempt to do what backers couldn’t do in 2006: ensure that Arizona’s existing law banning same-sex marriages will not be overturned by a judge…”

Arizona Republic  “Voters Approve Proposal to Ban Gay Marriage,”, Nov. 5, 2008

Jan. 1, 2009 – Norway Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Since January 2009, gay couples in Norway legally have been able to marry, adopt children and undergo artificial insemination. The new law replaced a 1993 law permitting civil unions. The 2009 law was passed despite resistance from members of the Christian Democratic Party and the Progress Party, as well as a public controversy over state funding for fertility treatments for lesbian couples.

The largest religious group in the country, the Lutheran-affiliated Church of Norway, was split over the issue. Following passage of the new law, the church’s leaders voted to prohibit its pastors from conducting same-sex weddings. But the Church of Norway does allow clergy to bless same-sex unions.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Around the World,”, July 16, 2013

Apr. 7, 2009 – Vermont Legislature Legalizes Same-Sex Marriages

“Vermont on Tuesday [Apr. 7, 2009] became the fourth state to legalize gay marriage – and the first to do so with a legislature’s vote.

The House recorded a dramatic 100-49 vote – the minimum needed – to override Gov. Jim Douglas’ veto. Its vote followed a much easier override vote in the Senate, which rebuffed the Republican governor with a vote of 23-5.

Vermont was the first state to legalize civil unions for same-sex couples and joins Connecticut, Massachusetts and Iowa in giving gays the right to marry. Their approval of gay marriage came from the courts.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Vermont Legalizes Gay Marriage with Veto Override,”, Apr. 7, 2009


Apr. 3, 2009 – Iowa Supreme Court Overturns Ban on Gay Marriage

“Same-sex couples will be allowed to marry in Iowa by month’s end, after a ruling on Friday [Apr. 3, 2009] by the Iowa Supreme Court that found unconstitutional a state law limiting marriage to a man and a woman.

The unanimous decision moved the heated battle over same-sex marriage beyond the East and West Coasts to the nation’s middle…

Opponents of same-sex marriage pledged to fight the outcome, but acknowledged that there appeared to be no immediate way to undo it. The only avenue would be a constitutional amendment, but under Iowa law that process would take at least two years…

Same-sex marriages could take place in counties here starting in three weeks, when the ruling becomes final… There is no requirement that people seeking marriage licenses prove they live in Iowa, so the doors will be open to same-sex couples from other states.”

New York Times  “Iowa Court Voids Gay Marriage Ban,”, Apr. 3, 2009


Apr. 1, 2009 – Sweden Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“In April 2009, the Swedish parliament voted by an overwhelming majority to legalize same-sex marriage. Gay couples in Sweden had been allowed to register for civil unions since 1995.

The 2009 law allows gays and lesbians to marry in both religious and civil ceremonies, but it does not require clergy to officiate at such ceremonies. The Lutheran-affiliated Church of Sweden, to which roughly three-quarters of all Swedes belong, has offered blessings for same-sex partnerships since January 2007. In October 2009, the church’s governing board voted to allow its clergy to officiate at same-sex marriage ceremonies.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Around the World,”, July 16, 2013


May 6, 2009 – Maine Governor Signs Bill Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages

“Maine’s governor signed a freshly passed bill Wednesday approving gay marriage, making it the fifth state to approve the practice and moving New England closer to allowing it throughout the region…

The Maine Senate voted 21-13, with one absent, for a bill that authorizes marriage between any two people rather than between one man and one woman… The House had passed the bill Tuesday.

Democratic Gov. John Baldacci, who hadn’t previously indicated how he would handle the bill, signed it shortly afterward. In the past, he said he opposed gay marriage but supported civil unions…”

Associated Press (AP)  “Maine Becomes 5th State to Allow Same-Sex Marriage,”, May 6, 2009

May 26, 2009 – California Supreme Court Upholds Proposition 8’s Ban on Same-Sex Marriages

Gay marriage proponents rally in San Francisco after Proposition 8 is upheld.Gay marriage proponents rally in San Francisco after Proposition 8 is upheld.
Source:, May 26, 2009

“The California Supreme Court today upheld Proposition 8’s ban on same-sex marriage but also ruled that gay couples who wed before the election will continue to be married under state law…

Although the court split 6-1 on the constitutionality of Proposition 8, the justices were unanimous in deciding to keep intact the marriages of as many as 18,000 gay couples who exchanged vows before the election. The marriages began last June, after a 4-3 state high court ruling striking down the marriage ban last May…

Even with the court upholding Proposition 8, a key portion of the court’s May 15, 2008, decision remains intact. Sexual orientation will continue to receive the strongest constitutional protection possible when California courts consider cases of alleged discrimination. The California Supreme Court is the only state high court in the nation to have elevated sexual orientation to the status of race and gender in weighing discrimination claims.”

Los Angeles Times  “Prop. 8 Upheld by California Supreme Court,”, May 26, 2009
Strauss v. Horton, Tyler v. State of California, and County of San Francisco v. Horton  (483KB)


June 3, 2009 – New Hampshire Legalizes Same-Sex Marriages

“The New Hampshire legislature approved revisions to a same-sex marriage bill on Wednesday [June 3, 2009], and Gov. John Lynch promptly signed the legislation, making the state the sixth to let gay couples wed.

The bill had been through several permutations to satisfy Mr. Lynch and certain legislators that it would not force religious organizations that oppose same-sex marriage to participate in ceremonies celebrating it. Some groups had feared they could be sued for refusing to allow same-sex weddings on their property.

Mr. Lynch, who previously supported civil unions but not marriage for same-sex couples, said in a statement that he had heard ‘compelling arguments that a separate system is not an equal system.’

‘Today,’ he said, ‘we are standing up for the liberties of same-sex couples by making clear that they will receive the same rights, responsibilities – and respect – under New Hampshire law.”

New York Times  “New Hampshire Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage,”, June 3, 2009

Nov. 5, 2009 – Maine Voters Repeal State’s Law Allowing Same-Sex Marriage

“With 87 percent of precincts reporting early Wednesday [Nov. 4, 2009] morning, 53 percent of voters had approved the repeal, ending an expensive and emotional fight that was closely watched around the country as a referendum on the gay-marriage movement. Polls had suggested a much closer race…

With the repeal of the same-sex marriage law, Maine became the 31st state to reject same-sex marriage at the ballot box. Five other states – Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire and Vermont – have legalized same-sex marriage, but only through court rulings and legislative action…

Throughout the bitter campaign, supporters of same-sex marriage had stressed that gay couples deserved equal treatment under the law, banking on Maine’s reputation as a ‘live-and-let-live’ state. Opponents repeatedly warned voters that if gays were allowed to marry, it would be taught in the public schools – a tactic that proved effective in California last year.”

New York Times  “A Setback in Maine for Gay Marriage, But Medical Marijuana Law Expands,”, Nov. 4, 2009

June 5, 2010 – Portugal Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“In June 2010, Portugal became the eighth country to legalize same-sex marriage. Its parliament had passed the measure legalizing gay marriage earlier in 2010. But following its passage, Portugal’s president, Anibal Cavaco Silva, asked the Constitutional Court to review the measure. In April 2010, the Constitutional Court declared the law to be constitutionally valid. It was signed by Silva in May of that year and took effect one month later. Portugal’s gay marriage law does not give married same-sex couples the right to adopt children.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Around the World,”, July 16, 2013


June 17, 2010 – Iceland Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“A measure legalizing same-sex marriage passed the Icelandic legislature in June 2010. Public opinion polls prior to the vote indicated broad support for the measure, and no members of the country’s legislature voted against it. Iceland had allowed same-sex couples to register as domestic partners since 1996. A decade later, the parliament passed a measure allowing gay couples to adopt children.

After the new law took effect in late June 2010, the country’s prime minister, Johanna Sigurdardottir, wed her longtime partner, Jonina Leosdottir, becoming one of the first people to marry under the statute.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Around the World,”, July 16, 2013

June 28, 2010 – Iceland’s Prime Minister, First Openly Gay Head of Government, Marries Partner

“Johanna Sigurdardottir, Iceland prime minister, married her long-time partner on Sunday as a new law legalising homosexual marriages came into force… Miss Sigurdardottir, 68, formally married Jonina Leosdottir, a writer, after the couple submitted a demand for their civil union to be transformed into a marriage.

Miss Sigurdardottir, born in 1942, took power in February 2009. She has lived with Miss Ledsdottir, who is in her fifties, for several years and the couple entered a civil union in 2002.

She is the world’s first openly gay head of government.”

Telegraph (The Daily Telegraph)  “Iceland PM Weds as Gay Marriage Legalised,”, June 28, 2010

July 22, 2010 – Argentina Becomes First Country in Latin America to Legalize Gay Marriage

“In July 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America to legalize same-sex marriage. In spite of vigorous opposition from the Catholic Church and evangelical Protestant churches, the measure passed both houses of the Argentine legislature and was signed into law by President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner. The law grants same-sex couples who marry all the rights and responsibilities enjoyed by heterosexual couples, including the right to adopt children.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage Around the World,”, July 16, 2013


Aug. 4, 2010 – US District Judge Rules CA Proposition 8 Unconstitutional

“A federal judge today struck down Proposition 8, the voter-passed November 2008 initiative that defined marriage as the union of a man and a woman.

U.S. District Judge Vaughn Walker found that the ban on same-sex marriage violated the constitutional due process and equal protection rights of a pair of couples – one lesbian and one gay – who sued.

The judge ordered an injunction against enforcement of Prop. 8 but issued a temporary stay until he decides whether to suspend his ruling while it is being appealed. The stay means that same-sex couples are still prohibited from marrying…

Walker’s ruling [in Perry v. Schwarzenegger] is certain to be appealed to the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco. The case could reach the U.S. Supreme Court in 2011 or 2012.”

San Francisco Chronicle  “Judge Strikes Down Ban on Same-Sex Marriage,”, Aug. 4, 2010
Perry v. Schwarzenegger (342 KB) 

Feb. 23, 2011 – US President Barack Obama Declares Defense of Marriage Act Unconstitutional, Directs Department of Justice to Stop Defending the Law in Court

“President Obama, in a major legal policy shift, has directed the Justice Department to stop defending the Defense of Marriage Act — the 1996 law that bars federal recognition of same-sex marriages — against lawsuits challenging it as unconstitutional.

Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. sent a letter to Congress on Wednesday saying that the Justice Department will now take the position in court that the Defense of Marriage Act should be struck down as a violation of gay couples’ rights to equal protection under the law.

‘The President and I have concluded that classifications based on sexual orientation warrant heightened scrutiny and that, as applied to same-sex couples legally married under state law,’ a crucial provision of the act is unconstitutional, Mr. Holder wrote.”

New York Times  “Obama Orders End to Defense of Federal Gay Marriage Law,”, Feb. 23, 2011


June 24, 2011 – New York Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

New York Governor Andrew M. Cuomo signs the same-sex mariage bill into law.New York Governor Andrew M. Cuomo signs the same-sex mariage bill into law.
Source:, June 24, 2011

“The number of Americans living in states covered by same-sex marriage laws has more than doubled after New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo signed a bill into law that gave gay and lesbian couples the right to marry. Cuomo signed the measure after it passed a Republican-controlled Senate on Friday night [June 24, 2011], raising questions as to whether the move reflects new momentum in the gay rights movement.

Cuomo said the law will grant same-sex couples equal rights to marry ‘as well as hundreds of rights, benefits and protections that are currently limited to married couples of the opposite sex.’ A few of those are the right of inheritance, employer health benefits and a host of state tax benefits. That will not include Social Security benefits through a spouse, because that is a federal benefit.

The controversial law passed by a narrow 33-to-29 vote – a first for a GOP-led state Senate – making New York the sixth state in the union to legalize same-sex marriage.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Number of Americans in Same-Sex Marriage States More Than Doubles,”, June 25, 2011


July 19, 2011 – President Barack Obama Supports Dianne Feinstein’s Bill to Repeal Defense of Marriage Act

“The Obama administration announced Tuesday that it will support a congressional effort to repeal a federal law that defines marriage as a legal union between a man and woman.

White House spokesman Jay Carney denounced the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), saying the administration will back a bill introduced this year by Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) to remove the law from the books.

Feinstein’s bill, called the Respect for Marriage Act, would ‘uphold the principle that the federal government should not deny gay and lesbian couples’ the same rights as others, according to Carney.”

Washington Post  “Obama Backs Bill to Repeal Defense of Marriage Act,”, July 19, 2011


Feb. 7, 2012 – US 9th Circuit Court of Appeals Rules CA Proposition 8 Unconstitutional

“A federal appeals court Tuesday struck down California’s ban on same-sex marriage, clearing the way for the U.S. Supreme Court to rule on gay marriage as early as next year.

The 2-1 decision by a panel of the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals found that Proposition 8, the 2008 ballot measure that limited marriage to one man and one woman, violated the U.S. Constitution. The architects of Prop. 8 have vowed to appeal. The ruling was narrow and likely to be limited to California…

In a separate decision, the appeals court refused [3-0] to invalidate Walker’s ruling on the grounds that he should have disclosed he was in a long term same-sex relationship. Walker, a Republican appointee who is openly gay, said after his ruling that he had been in a relationship with another man for 10 years.”

Los Angeles Times  “Prop. 8: Gay-marriage Ban Unconstitutional, Court Rules,”, Feb. 7, 2012

Feb. 13, 2012 – Washington Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Washington state became the seventh in the nation to put a law on its books recognizing same-sex marriage on Monday, as opponents of the measure signed by Governor Christine Gregoire vowed to try to prevent it from ever taking effect.

The measure, which won final approval from state lawmakers last Wednesday, remains essentially on hold until at least early June, following a standard enactment period that runs until 90 days after Washington’s legislative session ends.”

Reuters  “Washington Governor Signs Gay Marriage Law,”, Feb. 13, 2012


Mar. 1, 2012 – Maryland Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Maryland’s governor signed a measure legalizing gay marriage Thursday, joining seven other states.

Gov. Martin O’Malley, a Democrat, signed the bill a week after its final passage in the Legislature. The law is scheduled to take effect in January 2013. However, opponents – backed by many churches – are expected to petition the law to a referendum on the November ballot.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Md. Governor Signs Bill Legalizing Gay Marriage,”, Mar. 1, 2012


May 9, 2012 – President Obama Endorses Same-Sex Marriage

A monitor in the White House briefing room displays President Obama's appearance on ABC News, during which he endorsed same-sex marriage.A monitor in the White House briefing room displays President Obama’s appearance on ABC News, during which he endorsed same-sex marriage.
Source:, May 9, 2012

“President Obama announced Wednesday that he believes same-sex couples should be granted the right to marry, becoming the first U.S. president in history to fully embrace that level of civil rights for gays.

Obama’s announcement gave an immediate jolt to the decades-long movement for gay equality at a moment when a growing number of states are moving to ban — or legalize — same-sex unions and as polls show a majority of Americans support marriage rights.”

Washington Post  “Obama Endorses Gay Marriage, Says Same-Sex Couples Should Have Right to Wed,”, May 9, 2012

June 7, 2012 – Denmark Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Denmark has become the latest country to approve same-sex marriage.

The law was passed with an overwhelming majority in parliament, and also covers weddings in the Church of Denmark.

Denmark was the first country in the world to recognise civil partnerships for same-sex couples in 1989…

‘This is equality between couples of the same gender and couples of different genders. A major step forward,’ Danish Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs Manu Sareen said after the vote.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “Denmark Approves Same-Sex Marriage and Church Weddings,”, June 7, 2012

Nov. 6, 2012 – Maine, Maryland, and Washington Become First States to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage by Popular Vote

“Voters in Maine and Maryland approved same-sex marriage on a day of election results that jubilant gay rights advocates called a historic turning point, the first time that marriage for gay men and lesbians has been approved at the ballot box.

In Minnesota, in another first, voters rejected a proposal to amend the State Constitution to define marriage as between a man and a woman, a measure that has been enshrined in the constitutions of 30 states. A state law barring same-sex marriage remains on the books there, but with the defeat of the amendment, the door remains open to change by the legislature or the courts.”

New York Times  “Same-Sex Marriage Gains Cheer Gay Rights Advocates,”, Nov. 7, 2012

“Washington state has approved gay marriage, joining Maine and Maryland as the first states to pass same-sex marriage by popular vote.

With about three-quarters of the expected ballots counted Thursday, Referendum 74 was maintaining its lead of 52 percent. Opponents conceded the race Thursday, while supporters declared victory a day earlier…

Gay couples in Washington could start picking up their marriage certificates and licenses from county auditor offices Dec. 6, a day after the election is certified. However, because Washington has a three-day waiting period, the earliest a certificate could be signed, making the marriage valid, is Dec. 9.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Washington Voters Approve Gay Marriage,”, Nov. 9, 2012

Dec. 7, 2012 – US Supreme Court Agrees to Hear Two Same-Sex Marriage Cases

“The Supreme Court announced on Friday that it would enter the national debate over same-sex marriage, agreeing to hear a pair of cases challenging state and federal laws that define marriage to include only unions of a man and a woman.

One of the cases, from California [the Proposition 8 case], could establish or reject a constitutional right to same-sex marriage. Another case, from New York, challenges a federal law [the Defense of Marriage Act] that requires the federal government to deny benefits to gay and lesbian couples married in states that allow such unions.”

New York Times  “Supreme Court to Take Up Gay Marriage,”, Dec. 7, 2012


Feb. 11, 2013 – US Military Extends Some Marriage Benefits to Same-Sex Partners

“The Pentagon announced Monday that it would extend 20 new benefits to same-sex military couples, including access to base facilities and groups as well as joint assignments, the latest move by the Obama administration to heed calls from gay and lesbians pressing for change.

Activists hailed the move as a meaningful step toward full equality, which they say will remain elusive unless a 1996 federal law [the Defense of Marriage Act] that defines marriage as a heterosexual union is repealed. The new benefits do not include health care coverage for same-sex spouses or on-base housing privileges.”

Washington Post  “Same-Sex Military Couples to Receive New Benefits, Pentagon Says,”, Feb. 11, 2011


Apr. 19, 2013 – New Zealand Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“The Marriage (Definition of Marriage) Amendment Bill passed its third and final reading by 77 votes to 44 on Wednesday night.

The vote made New Zealand the first country in the Asia-Pacific region and the 13th in the world to enshrine marriage equality in law.

The Governor-General gave Royal Assent to the legislation on Friday.

There is a four month wait written into the Act so the Department of Internal Affairs can make the necessary changes to forms, certificates and computer systems.

This means the first date that same-sex couples will be able to marry will be 19 August.”

Radio New Zealand  “Marriage Legislation Becomes Law,”, Apr. 21, 2013

May 2, 2013 – Rhode Island Becomes 10th US State to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

“Overcoming years of resistance, Rhode Island on Thursday became the 10th state in the country and the last in New England to approve same-sex marriage.

The measure passed a final vote in the legislature in the afternoon. Just before 7 p.m., Gov. Lincoln Chafee, an independent who had long advocated for its passage, signed it into law in a jubilant ceremony on the steps of the Statehouse in Providence, where hundreds of people, including many state and local officials, joined the celebration…

Approval in Rhode Island followed a 16-year struggle in the heavily Roman Catholic state, with intense opposition from clerics and many Republicans. But in a sign of the changing times, all five Republicans in the 38-member State Senate supported the measure — the only time in any state where the entire caucus of either party has approved such a measure unanimously — making Rhode Island the latest indication of growing acceptance of same-sex marriage across the country.”

New York Times  “Rhode Island Joins States That Allow Gay Marriage,”, May 2, 2013


May 3, 2013 – Uruguay Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Uruguayan President José Mujica last week signed a bill into law that will extend marriage rights to same-sex couples in the South American country.

The newspaper El País reported on Monday that Mujica and Education and Culture Minister Ricardo Ehrlich signed the measure on May 3. It received final approval last month in the Uruguay House of Representatives.”

Washington Blade  “Uruguayan President Signs Marriage Bill into Law,”, May 7, 2013

May 7, 2013 – Delaware Becomes 11th US State to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

“A divided state Senate voted Tuesday to make Delaware the 11th state in the nation to allow same-sex marriage, after hearing hours of passionate testimony from supporters and opponents.

Less than an hour after the Senate’s 12-9 vote, Democratic Gov. Jack Markell signed the measure into law.

‘I do not intend to make any of you wait one moment longer,’ a smiling Markell told about 200 jubilant supporters who erupted in cheers and applause following the Senate vote…

Delaware’s same-sex marriage bill was introduced in the Democrat-controlled legislature barely a year after the state began recognizing same-sex civil unions. The bill won passage two weeks ago in the state House on a 23-18 vote.”

Washington Post  “Delaware Becomes 11th State Allowing Same-Sex Marriage After State Senate Vote,”, May 7, 2013

May 14, 2013 – Minnesota Becomes 12th US State to Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

“Governor Mark Dayton on Tuesday made Minnesota the nation’s 12th state to allow same-sex couples to marry and only the second in the Midwest, signing a bill on the steps of the state Capitol before thousands of supporters.

The Democratic governor’s signature came a day after state senators approved the bill, which made Minnesota the third state this month to approve same-sex nuptials after Rhode Island and Delaware.

The Minnesota law takes effect on August 1 and Minneapolis, the state’s biggest city, said on Tuesday that City Hall would open just after midnight on the first day same-sex couples can marry and Mayor R.T. Rybak will be on hand to officiate that night…

Iowa is the only other Midwestern state that permits same-sex couples to marry, by a state Supreme Court order in 2009.”

Reuters  “Minnesota Governor Signs Bill Legalizing Gay Marriage,”, May 14, 2013


May 14, 2013 – Brazil’s National Council of Justice Legalizes Gay Marriage

“The council overseeing Brazil’s judiciary ruled on Tuesday [May 14, 2014] that notary publics cannot refuse to perform same-sex marriage ceremonies, a decision that opens the way for gay couples across Latin America’s largest country to marry.

The move by the National Council of Justice, a 15-member panel led by Joaquim Barbosa, the chief justice of the nation’s high court, effectively legalizes gay marriage throughout Brazil, legal scholars here said.”

New York Times  “Brazilian Court Council Removes a Barrier to Same-Sex Marriage,”, May 14, 2013


May 18, 2013 – France Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“France’s president has signed into law a controversial bill making the country the ninth in Europe, and 14th globally, to legalise gay marriage.

On Friday, the Constitutional Council rejected a challenge by the right-wing opposition, clearing the way for Francois Hollande to sign the bill…

The first gay wedding could be held 10 days after the bill’s signing…

Scores of protesters took to the streets of Paris to voice their opposition to the ruling on Friday: previous, occasionally violent, demonstrations against the bill have drawn hundreds of thousands onto the streets.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “France Gay Marriage: Hollande Signs Bill into Law,”, May 18, 2013

June 26, 2013 – US Supreme Court Finds Key Part of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) Unconstitutional

“The Supreme Court struck down a key part of the federal Defense of Marriage Act on Wednesday and declared that same-sex couples who are legally married deserve equal rights to the benefits under federal law that go to all other married couples.

The decision is a landmark win for the gay rights movement. It voids a section of the law known as DOMA, which was adopted with bipartisan support in Congress in 1996 to deny all benefits and recognition to same-sex couples.

At that time, no state permitted gays and lesbians to marry. Now, 12 states and the District of Columbia authorize same-sex marriages.

Justice Anthony Kennedy, speaking for the 5-4 majority, said DOMA was unconstitutional because it violated the right to liberty and to equal protection for gay couples.

‘By seeking to displace this protection and treating those persons as living in marriages less respected than others, the federal statute’ violates the Constitution, he said.

Dissenting were Justices John Roberts, Antonin Scalia, Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas.

The ruling means that more than 100,000 gay and lesbian couples who are legally married will be able to take advantage of tax breaks, pension rights and other benefits that are available to other married couples.”

Los Angeles Times  “Gay Marriage Ruling: Supreme Court Finds DOMA Unconstitutional,”, June 26, 2013


June 26, 2013 – US Supreme Court Says Proposition 8 Defenders Lack ‘Standing,’ Clears Way for Legal Gay Marriage in California

Gay marriage supporters and opponents gather outside the US Supreme Court during arguments over California's Proposition 8 on Mar. 26, 2013.Gay marriage supporters and opponents gather outside the US Supreme Court during arguments over California’s Proposition 8 on Mar. 26, 2013.
Source:, Mar. 26, 2013

“The Supreme Court has dismissed an appeal over same-sex marriage on jurisdictional grounds, ruling Wednesday private parties do not have ‘standing’ to defend California’s voter-approved ballot measure barring gay and lesbian couples from state-sanctioned wedlock.

The ruling clears the way for same-sex marriages in California to resume.

The 5-4 decision avoids, for now, a sweeping conclusion on whether same-sex marriage is a constitutional ‘equal protection’ right that would apply to all states.

At issue was whether the Constitution’s guarantee of equal protection under the law prevents states from defining marriage to exclude same-sex couples, and whether a state can revoke same-sex marriage through referendum, as California did, once it already has been recognized.

But a majority of the Supreme Court opted not to rule on those issues. Instead, it ruled on ‘standing’ — whether those who brought the suit to the court were entitled to do so.

‘We have never before upheld the standing of a private party to defend a state statute when state officials have chosen not to,’ said Chief Justice John Roberts. He was supported by an unusual coalition: fellow conservative Justice Antonin Scalia and more liberal Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer, and Elena Kagan.

By dismissing the case, the court leaves in place the lower court decision in California that allows for same-sex marriage to be reinstated. The federal appeals court stay on the decision will be lifted.”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Supreme Court Dismisses California’s Proposition 8 Appeal,”, June 26, 2013


July 17, 2013 – England and Wales Legalize Same-Sex Marriage

“Britain on Wednesday legalized gay marriage after Queen Elizabeth II gave her royal stamp of approval, clearing the way for the first same-sex weddings next summer.

Lawmakers cheered as House of Commons Speaker John Bercow said royal assent had been given — one day after the bill to legalize same-sex marriage in England and Wales cleared Parliament.

The queen’s approval was a formality and is the last step necessary for a bill to become law.

The law enables gay couples to get married in both civil and religious ceremonies in England and Wales, provided that the religious institution consents. The Church of England, the country’s official faith, is barred from performing such ceremonies.

It also will allow couples who had previously entered into civil partnerships — which were introduced in 2005 and carry similar rights and responsibilities to marriage — to convert their relationships to marriage.

The British government introduced the bill in January.

Prime Minister David Cameron had backed it, but it divided his Conservative Party and touched off strident debates in the House of Commons and House of Lords.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Britain Legalizes Gay Marriage as Queen Elizabeth II Gives Royal Approval,”, July 17, 2013

Aug. 26, 2013 – Some New Mexico Counties Issue Same-Sex Marriage Licenses

“County clerks in New Mexico will begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples after a state judge ruled Monday [Aug. 26, 2013] that the state’s marriage law, which uses gender-neutral terms to define domestic relationships, doesn’t specifically prohibit gay marriage.

State District Judge Alan Malott on Monday ordered Bernalillo County Clerk Maggie Toulouse Oliver and Santa Fe County Clerk Geraldine Salazar to begin issuing licenses to same-sex couples immediately. The ruling echoed another district judge’s ruling last week that ordered Santa Fe County to begin issuing licenses…

But whether the rulings means same-sex marriage is legal throughout New Mexico is unclear. Attorney General Gary King (D) has said he will not appeal the rulings, and both Oliver and Salazar have said their offices won’t appeal.”

Washington Post  “Gay Marriage Legal in New Mexico, Sort of,”, Aug. 28, 2013


Aug. 29, 2013 – Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Recognizes Married Same-Sex Couples

“All legally married same-sex couples will be recognized for federal tax purposes no matter what state they live in, the Internal Revenue Service and the Treasury Department announced Thursday in a change that will affect numerous couples in states that have not permitted gay marriage.

The change in policy follows the Supreme Court’s decision in June overturning a key provision of the Defense of Marriage Act that barred the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages for purposes such as insurance benefits, immigration and tax filings.

The new approach ‘provides access to benefits, responsibilities and protections under federal tax law that all Americans deserve,’ Treasury Secretary Jacob J. Lew said in a statement. ‘This ruling also assures legally married same-sex couples that they can move freely throughout the country knowing that their federal filing status will not change.’…

The Treasury Department said the ruling would apply for all federal tax purposes, including income, gift and estate taxes, and all federal tax provisions in which marriage is a factor, including filing status, dependency exemptions, employee benefits and individual retirement accounts.

Individuals who were in same-sex marriages also now have the option of filing amended tax returns for the last three years to reflect their married status.”

Los Angeles Times  “IRS, Treasury Will Recognize Same-Sex Marriage Across State Lines,”, Aug. 29, 2013

Sep. 27, 2013 – New Jersey Becomes 14th State to Legalize Gay Marriage

“A New Jersey judge ruled on Friday [Sep. 27, 2013] that the state must allow same-sex couples to marry, finding that failing to do so deprives them of rights that are now guaranteed by the federal government following a ruling by the Supreme Court in June.

It is the first time a court has struck down a state ban on same-sex marriage as a direct result of the Supreme Court’s ruling, and it comes as Gov. Chris Christie continues to oppose allowing gay marriage in the state. Mr. Christies’s office said it would appeal but declined to say whether it would also seek to prevent same-sex weddings from beginning on Oct. 21, as the judge ordered.

‘The ineligibility of same-sex couples for federal benefits is currently harming same-sex couples in New Jersey in a wide range of contexts,’ wrote the judge, Mary C. Jacobson of State Superior Court in Mercer County. ‘Same-sex couples must be allowed to marry in order to obtain equal protection of the law under the New Jersey Constitution.’…

In June, the Supreme Court struck down the federal Defense of Marriage Act, known as DOMA. The court’s 5-to-4 decision meant that the federal government must provide the same benefits to gay couples as to heterosexual couples.”

New York Times  “New Jersey Judge Rules State Must Allow Gay Marriage,”, Sep. 27, 2013

Nov. 13, 2013 – Hawaii Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Hawaii’s governor signed into law on Wednesday [Nov. 13, 2013] a bill extending marriage rights to same-sex couples, capping 20 years of legal and political rancor in a state regarded as a pioneer in advancing the cause of gay matrimony.

The new law, which takes effect on December 2, makes Hawaii the 15th U.S. state to legalize nuptials for gay and lesbian couples, rolling back a 1994 statute defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman.

‘In Hawaii, we are all minorities, and we all deserve the same aloha,’ state Representative Chris Lee, a leading proponent of the measure, said before Governor Neil Abercrombie signed the bill.”

Reuters  “Hawaii Becomes 15th U.S. State to Legalize Gay Marriage,”, Nov. 13, 2013


Nov. 20, 2013 – Illinois Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

Governor Pat Quinn signs Illinois' same-sex marriage bill at the University of Illinois at Chicago, on a desk used by President Abraham Lincoln.Governor Pat Quinn signs Illinois’ same-sex marriage bill at the University of Illinois at Chicago, on a desk used by President Abraham Lincoln.
Source:, Nov. 20, 2013

“Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn signed legislation Wednesday [Nov. 20, 2013] allowing same-sex weddings starting this summer, making President Barack Obama’s home state the 16th overall — and largest in the nation’s heartland — to legalize gay marriage…

“We understand in our state that part of our unfinished business is to help other states in the United States of America achieve marriage equality,” Quinn said before he signed the bill on a desk once used by President Abraham Lincoln. He said part of that mission was to ensure that “love is not relegated to a second class status to any citizen in our country.”…

When the law takes effect June 1 [2014], same-sex couples can begin applying for marriage licenses.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Illinois Governor Signs Same-Sex Marriage into Law,”, Nov. 20, 2013

Dec. 19, 2013 – New Mexico Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“New Mexico’s highest court unanimously ruled Thursday [Dec. 19, 2013] it is unconstitutional to deny a marriage license to same-sex couples, making it the newest state to legalize gay weddings.

The Supreme Court justices said the state must respect the marriages of all same-sex couples, including those who wed before their decision. Prior to the ruling, county clerks in eight New Mexico counties had started issuing marriage licenses to hundreds of same-sex couples.

‘Barring individuals from marrying and depriving them of the rights, protections and responsibilities of civil marriage solely because of their sexual orientation violates the Equal Protection Clause under Article II, Section 18 of the New Mexico Constitution,’ Justice Edward Chavez wrote for the court.”

Los Angeles Times  “New Mexico Becomes Latest State to Legalize Gay Marriage,”, Dec. 19, 2013


Dec. 20, 2013 – Utah’s Gay Marriage Ban Ruled Unconstitutional by Federal Judge

“A federal judge on Friday [Dec. 20, 2013] ruled Utah’s same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional in a state dominated by the Mormon Church, one of the country’s staunchest opponents of gay marriage.

‘The State’s current laws deny its gay and lesbian citizens their fundamental right to marry and, in so doing, demean the dignity of these same-sex couples for no rational reason,’ Judge Robert J. Shelby, of the U.S. District Court for the District of Utah, wrote in his opinion. ‘Accordingly, the court finds that these laws are unconstitutional.’…

The Salt Lake County Clerk began issuing marriage licenses almost immediately after the ruling.”

Washington Post  “Utah’s Same-Sex Marriage Ban Is Unconstitutional, Judge Rules,”, Dec. 20, 2013


Jan. 6, 2014 – US Supreme Court Halts Gay Marriages in Utah

“The Supreme Court on Monday [Jan. 6, 2014] blocked further same-sex marriages in Utah while state officials appeal a decision allowing such unions.

The terse order, from the full court, issued a stay ‘pending final disposition’ of an appeal to the federal appeals court in Denver. It offered no reasoning.”

New York Times  “Justices Block Gay Marriage in Utah During Appeal of Case,”, Jan. 6, 2014


Jan. 7, 2014 – Nigeria Bans Gay Marriage

“A tough ban on same-sex relationships that threatens violators with 14-year prison terms has been quietly signed into law by the president of Nigeria, Africa’s most populous nation, a step that rights advocates have long feared not only as a repression aimed at gays but as an affront to basic freedoms of speech and assembly.

The ban, known as the Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act, was passed by Parliament in May but was not signed by the president, Goodluck Jonathan, until Jan. 7, Nigerian news agencies reported Monday from Abuja, the capital…

Under the Nigerian law, it is illegal not only to engage in an intimate relationship with a member of the same sex, but to attend or organize a meeting of gays, or patronize or operate any type of gay organization, including private clubs. Any same-sex marriages or partnerships accepted as legal in other countries would be void in Nigeria.”

New York Times  “Nigerian President Signs Ban on Same-Sex Relationships,”, Jan. 13, 2014

Feb. 4, 2014 – Scotland Legalizes Gay Marriage

“On Feb. 4, 2014, the Scottish Parliament voted overwhelmingly to approve legislation legalizing same-sex marriage. In addition to allowing same-sex couples to wed, the measure gives churches and other religious groups the option of deciding whether or not they want to conduct such marriages. The two largest churches in Scotland – the Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholic Church – oppose same-sex marriage and lobbied against the bill.

The law took effect and same-sex couples began marrying in Scotland in December 2014.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage around the World,”, June 30, 2017

May 19, 2014 – Oregon Becomes 18th State to Legalize Gay Marriage

“A federal judge struck down Oregon’s voter-approved ban on same-sex marriage Monday [May 19, 2014].

‘Because Oregon’s marriage laws discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation without a rational relationship to any legitimate government interest, the laws violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution,’ U.S. District Judge Michael McShane said in his ruling…”

Cable News Network (CNN)  “Federal Judge Strikes Down Oregon’s Same-Sex Marriage Ban,”, May 19, 2013


May 20, 2014 – Pennsylvania Becomes 19th State to Legalize Gay Marriage

“Pennsylvania will not appeal a federal court ruling that overturned the state’s ban on same-sex marriage, ending the battle over the issue in the Keystone State, Gov. Tom Corbett announced on Wednesday.

The decision, announced in emails to reporters, means that Pennsylvania will continue to be the 19th state in the nation, along with the District of Columbia, to legalize gay marriage. Officials began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples Tuesday [May 20, 2014] after U.S. District Court Judge John Jones III, sitting in Harrisburg, Pa., ruled that the state’s 1996 ban on gay marriage was unconstitutional.”

Los Angeles Times  “Pennsylvania Governor Abandons Appeal on Same-Sex Marriage Ruling,”, May 20, 2014


June 18, 2014 – Luxembourg Legalizes Gay Marriage

“On June 18, Luxembourg’s parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, overwhelmingly approved legislation that will allow gay and lesbian couples to wed and to adopt children. The bill, which took effect in early 2015, was championed by the country’s prime minister, Xavier Bettel, who is openly gay.

The changes are part of a larger rewrite of the tiny country’s marriage laws – the first major overhaul since 1804. In addition to allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt, the legislation sets the legal age of marriage at 18 and eliminates the existing requirement that couples who want to marry must first submit to a medical exam.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage around the World,”, June 30, 2017


June 19, 2014 – Presbyterian Church Votes to Allow Gay Wedding Ceremonies

“The Presbyterian Church (USA) voted Thursday (June 19) to allow gay and lesbian weddings within the church, making it among the largest Christian denominations to take an embracing step toward same-sex marriage.

By a 76-24 percent vote, the General Assembly of the 1.8 million-member PCUSA voted to allow pastors to perform gay marriages in states where they are legal. Delegates, meeting in Detroit this week, also approved new language about marriage in the church’s Book of Order, or constitution, altering references to ‘a man and woman’ to ‘two persons.'”

Washington Post  “Presbyterians Vote to Allow Gay Marriage by Whopping 3-1 Ratio,”, June 19, 2014

July 7, 2014 – United Nations Recognizes Same-Sex Marriages of All UN Staffers

“The United Nations announced Monday [July 7, 2014] it would recognize the gay marriages of all its staffers, in a major policy shift that opens the door for the spouses of homosexual employees to enjoy the same benefits as the husbands and wives of their heterosexual colleagues.

Previously, the United Nations only recognized the unions of staffers who came from countries where gay marriage is legal. Now anyone who marries in countries where gay marriage is legal is included.

The change means gay spouses of U.N. employees can get health insurance coverage and the chance to accompany spouses on their home leave every couple of years, among other benefits.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Correction: United Nations-Gay Marriage Story,”, July 8, 2014


Oct. 6, 2014 – US Supreme Court Clears Way for Same-Sex Marriage in Five States

A gay marriage advocate displays a rainbow flag outside the US Supreme Court.A gay marriage advocate displays a rainbow flag outside the US Supreme Court.
Source:, Oct. 6, 2014

“The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday declined to decide once and for all whether states can ban gay marriage, a surprise move that will allow gay men and women to marry in five states where same-sex weddings were previously forbidden.

By rejecting appeals in cases involving Virginia, Oklahoma, Utah, Wisconsin and Indiana, the court left intact lower-court rulings that had struck down the bans in those states. But the high court’s action means there will be no imminent national ruling on the issue, with litigation in states where gay marriage is still banned likely to continue…

Other states under the jurisdiction of appeals courts that have struck down the bans will also be affected by the Supreme Court’s decision, meaning the number of states with gay marriage is likely to quickly jump from 19 to 30. The other states would be North Carolina, West Virginia, South Carolina, Wyoming, Kansas and Colorado.”

Reuters  “Supreme Court Dodges Gay Marriage, Allowing Weddings in Five States,”, Oct. 6, 2014

Nov. 6, 2014 – 6th Circuit Court of Appeals Upholds Gay Marriage Bans

“A federal appeals court panel upheld bans on same-sex marriage in four states Thursday, a break with other federal courts that makes it almost certain the Supreme Court must take up the issue of whether gay couples have a constitutional right to marry…

The decision overturned lower-court rulings in Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee and Kentucky and makes the 6th Circuit the first appeals court to uphold state bans since the Supreme Court struck down part of the federal Defense of Marriage Act in 2013.”

Washington Post  “Appeals Court Upholds Ban on Same-Sex Marriage for First Time,”, Nov. 6, 2014

Nov. 12, 2014 – Kansas Becomes 33rd State to Legalize Gay Marriage

“The U.S. Supreme Court cleared Kansas to become the 33rd state with same-sex marriage, turning away a bid by state officials who sought to stop the weddings while a legal fight plays out…

Today’s rebuff, which came without explanation, tracks similar Supreme Court orders that let gay marriage start in Idaho and Alaska in recent weeks. Justices Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas said they would have granted the request and blocked gay marriages in Kansas.”

Bloomberg  “U.S. Supreme Court Clears Gay Marriage to Start in Kansas,”, Nov. 12, 2014


Nov. 20, 2014 – South Carolina Becomes 35th State to Legalize Gay Marriage

“The U.S. Supreme Court on Thursday cleared the way for South Carolina to become the 35th U.S. state where gay marriage is legal, denying a request to block same-same weddings from proceeding.

The order was another victory for gay marriage advocates after a federal judge in Montana on Wednesday struck down that state’s ban on same-sex marriage.”

Reuters  “Supreme Court Allows Gay Marriage to Proceed in South Carolina,”, Nov. 20, 2014


Apr. 28, 2015 – US Supreme Court Hears Arguments in Landmark Gay Marriage Case

“The Supreme Court on Tuesday seemed deeply divided about one of the great civil rights issues of the age: whether the Constitution guarantees same-sex couples the right to marry.

The questions from the justices suggested that they were divided along the usual lines — conservative and liberal — with Justice Anthony M. Kennedy holding the controlling vote. On the evidence of his words, he seemed torn about what to do. But Justice Kennedy’s tone was more emotional and emphatic when he made the case for same-sex marriage. That, coupled with his earlier judicial opinions, gave gay rights advocates reason for optimism by the end of the arguments, which lasted two and a half hours.

The justices appeared to clash over not only what is the right answer in the case but also over how to reach it. The questioning illuminated their conflicting views on history, tradition, biology, constitutional interpretation, the democratic process and the role of the courts in prodding social change…

Until recently, the court has been cautious and halting in addressing same-sex marriage, signaling that it did not want to outpace public support and developments in the states. Now, though, a definitive decision will probably be handed down in about two months.”

New York Times  “Gay Marriage Arguments Divide Supreme Court Justices,”, Apr. 28, 2015

May 15, 2015 – Prime Minister Xavier Bettel Marries Partner in First Gay Marriage of EU Leader

“The prime minister of Luxembourg on Friday wed his partner of several years in the first same-sex marriage of a European Union leader.

Prime Minister Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, a Belgian architect, less than a year after lawmakers in Luxembourg overwhelmingly legalized same-sex marriage, a sign of shifting attitudes in the predominantly Roman Catholic duchy.

Mr. Bettel, a 42-year-old lawyer, is the head of the center-right Democratic Party and was elected prime minister in 2013 after having served as mayor of the capital, the city of Luxembourg. He replaced Jean-Claude Juncker, now head of the European Commission, who had been in power for nearly 19 years.”

New York Times  “Luxembourg Premier Is First E.U. Leader to Marry Same-Sex Partner,”, May 15, 2015


May 23, 2015 – Ireland Becomes First Country to Legalize Gay Marriage by Popular Vote

“Ireland’s citizens have voted in a landslide to legalize gay marriage, electoral officials announced Saturday — a stunningly lopsided result that illustrates what Catholic leaders and rights activists alike called a ‘social revolution.’

Friday’s referendum saw 62.1 percent of Irish voters say ‘yes’ to changing the nation’s constitution to define marriage as a union between two people regardless of their sex. Outside Dublin Castle, watching the results announcement in its cobblestoned courtyard, thousands of gay rights activists cheered, hugged and cried at the news…

Ireland is the first country to approve gay marriage in a popular national vote.”

Washington Post  “‘Bold’ Ireland Votes to Legalize Gay Marriage in Landslide,”, May 23, 2015

May 27, 2015 – Greenland Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“Greenland’s Parliament has unanimously approved same-sex marriage and adoption. MPs in the country, which has a population of 57,000 [and is an autonomous territory of the Kingdom of Denmark], voted to adopt Danish legislation on the issue… The bill to make the changes to bring Greenland in line with Denmark, which legalised same-sex marriage in 2012, was announced in February.

Going into effect on 1 October 2015, the new law also grants adoption rights to same-sex couples.”

Pink News  “Parliament in Greenland Unanimously Approves Same-Sex Marriage,”, May 27, 201


June 26, 2015 – US Supreme Court Makes Gay Marriage Legal in All 50 US States

Gay marriage supporters outside the US Supreme Court.Gay marriage supporters outside the US Supreme Court., June 26, 2015

“In a long-sought victory for the gay rights movement, the Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote on Friday that the Constitution guarantees a right to same-sex marriage…

The decision, which was the culmination of decades of litigation and activism, set off celebrations across the country and the first same-sex marriages in several states. It came against the backdrop of fast-moving changes in public opinion, with polls indicating that most Americans now approve of the unions.

The court’s four more liberal justices joined Justice Kennedy’s majority opinion. Each member of the court’s conservative wing filed a separate dissent, in tones ranging from resigned dismay to bitter scorn.”

New York Times  “Gay Marriage Backers Win Supreme Court Victory,”, June 26, 2015

“The Court, in this decision, holds same-sex couples may exercise the fundamental right to marry in all States.   It follows that the Court also must hold—and it now does hold—that there is no lawful basis for a State to refuse to recognize a lawful same-sex marriage performed in another State on the ground of its same-sex character…

No union is more profound than marriage, for it embodies the highest ideals of love, fidelity, devotion, sacrifice, and family. In forming a marital union, two people become something greater than once they were. As some of the petitioners in these cases demonstrate, marriage embodies a love that may endure even past death. It would misunderstand these men and women to say they disrespect the idea of marriage. Their plea is that they do respect it, respect it so deeply that they seek to find its fulfillment for themselves. Their hope is not to be condemned to live in loneliness, excluded from one of civilization’s oldest institutions.  They ask for equal dignity in the eyes of the law. The Constitution grants them that right.”

Obergefell v. Hodges, majority decision written by Justice Anthony Kennedy, June 26, 2015

“This morning, the Supreme Court recognized that the Constitution guarantees marriage equality. In doing so, they have reaffirmed that all Americans are entitled to the equal protection of the law; that all people should be treated equally, regardless of who they are or who they love.

This decision will end the patchwork system we currently have. It will end the uncertainty hundreds of thousands of same-sex couples face from not knowing whether their marriage, legitimate in the eyes of one state, will remain if they decide to move or even visit another…

I know that Americans of good will continue to hold a wide range of views on this issue. Opposition, in some cases, has been based on sincere and deeply held beliefs. All of us who welcome today’s news should be mindful of that fact and recognize different viewpoints, revere our deep commitment to religious freedom.”

Barack Obama  “Remarks by the President on the Supreme Court Decision on Marriage Equality,”, June 26, 2015


July 1, 2015 –Episcopal Church Votes to Allow Same-Sex Weddings

“Episcopalians overwhelmingly voted Wednesday to allow religious weddings for same-sex couples, solidifying the church’s embrace of gay rights that began more than a decade ago with the election of the first openly gay bishop.

The vote came in Salt Lake City at the Episcopal General Convention, days after the U.S. Supreme Court legalized gay marriage nationwide. It passed in the House of Deputies, the voting body of clergy and lay participants at the meeting. The House of Bishops had approved the resolution Tuesday, 129-26, with five abstaining.

The Very Rev. Brian Baker of Sacramento said the church rule change was the result of a nearly four-decade conversation that has been difficult and painful for many. Baker, chairman of the committee that crafted the changes, said that church members have not always been kind to one another but that the dynamic has changed in recent decades.”

Associated Press (AP)  “Episcopal Church Formally Embraces Same-Sex Marriage,”, July 1, 2015

Apr. 13, 2016 – Judge Rules against Couple in First Gay Marriage Court Case in China

“A judge ruled on Wednesday against a gay couple who had sought the right to marry, in China’s first court case addressing the issue of same-sex unions.

The couple, Sun Wenlin and Hu Mingliang, filed a lawsuit against a civil affairs bureau in Changsha, Hunan Province, in southern China, after the office refused to grant them the right to marry when they tried to register in June 2015…

The bureau cited three articles from China’s marriage law and two from the official marriage registration regulation… with four mentioning ‘a man and a woman’ and one stating that a civil affairs bureau may refuse applications if it believes a couple is not qualified to marry.”

New York Times  “Judge in China Rules Gay Couple Cannot Marry,”, Apr. 13, 2016

Apr. 29, 2016 – Colombia Legalizes Gay Marriage

“Colombia’s top court has legalised same-sex marriage, making the country the fourth in Latin America to do so.

Gay couples were already allowed to form civil partnerships, but Thursday’s ruling extends them the same marriage rights as heterosexual couples.

Earlier this month the constitutional court dismissed a judge’s petition against equal marriage rights for heterosexual and homosexual couples.”

British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)  “Colombia Legalises Gay Marriage,”, Apr. 29, 2016


Feb. 24, 2017 – Slovenia Legalizes Gay Marriage

“Slovenia permitted same-sex marriages for the first time [on] Friday under a law giving gay couples largely the same rights as heterosexuals though barring them from jointly adopting children…

Homosexual couples in Slovenia, a European Union member with a 2 million population, have been able to register their relationship since 2006 and are also allowed to adopt children from a partner’s previous relationship – though not the children of others.”

Reuters  “Slovenia Allows Same-Sex Marriage, but Not Adoption,”, Feb. 24, 2017

Mar. 1, 2017 – Same-Sex Marriage Becomes Legal in Finland

“Same-sex marriage will become legal in Finland starting in [March] 2017. The Finnish Parliament approved a bill legalizing same-sex unions in November 2014, and Finland’s president, Sauli Niinistö, signed the measure into law in February 2015. The bill started out as a ‘citizens’ initiative’ – a public petition with a reported 167,000 signatures.

Finland becomes the last of the five Nordic countries to legalize same-sex marriage, joining Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.”

Pew Research Center  “Gay Marriage around the World,”, June 30, 2017


May 5, 2017 – Bermuda Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage

“[A] gay couple won a legal challenge to tie the knot in Bermuda, after the country’s Supreme Court ruled that a ban on same-sex unions is discriminatory violation of human rights.

The plaintiffs, Bermudian native Winston Godwin and his Canadian fiancé Greg DeRoche, are the first couple to win marriage recognition in the country…

[T]he Bermudan government confirmed that it would not appeal against the ruling.”

Pink News  “Bermudan Government ‘Will Implement’ Same-Sex Marriage after Court Ruling,”, May 10, 2017

July 12, 2017 – Malta Legalizes Gay Marriage

“Lawmakers in predominantly Roman Catholic Malta legalized same-sex marriage Wednesday, joining much of Western Europe by replacing the traditional ‘you are now husband and wife’ declaration in civil ceremonies with ‘you are now spouses.’

Only one lawmaker out of 67 in the Maltese parliament voted against the legislation, signaling its broad support on the island nation despite opposition from the Catholic Church…

Indeed, the law’s passage marked the latest evidence of the transformation of the once-conservative nation of about 440,000 people, where divorce was illegal until 2011.”

Washington Post  “Malta OKs Same-Sex Marriages over Catholic Church Protest,”, July 12, 2017


July 20, 2017 – Germany Legalizes Gay Marriage

“Germany’s president has signed legislation legalizing gay marriage…

Lawmakers approved the bill on June 30 in parliament’s last session before Germany’s September election. The move became possible after Chancellor Angela Merkel, whose conservative party had long been reluctant to budge on the issue, said she would allow its lawmakers to vote according to their conscience.

The presidential office said President Frank-Walter Steinmeier signed the legislation on Thursday. That means it will come into force Oct. 1 at the earliest.

Germany has allowed same-sex couples to enter civil partnerships since 2001, but until now has not granted them full marital rights including the possibility of jointly adopting children.”


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